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教師招聘高中英語With引導的獨立主格結構分析(語法知識)

2019-11-05 11:41 分享到:

With引導的獨立主格結構分析

with獨立主格結構是英語中一種重要的句法現象,在句子結構方面具有相對獨立的特點。多年來也一直是命題的熱點、重點,因此應該引起我們的高度重視。眾所周知,with引導的獨立主格結構非?;钴S,雖然它在句子中只作狀語,但是可以表示伴隨、方式、原因、結果等各種復雜的情況。

現將with引導的獨立主格結構總結如下。

一、句法結構

1. with +名詞(代詞)+介詞短語

He sat there thinking, with his chin on his hand.他手托下巴,坐在那兒沉思。

The old man stood there, with his back against the wall.那位老人背倚著墻站在那里。

Mary was sitting near the fire, with her back towards the door.瑪麗靠近火爐坐著,背對著門。

2. with +名詞(代詞)+形容詞

He stared at his friend with his mouth wide open.他張大嘴巴凝視著他的朋友。

The man raised his head with eyes full of wonder and mystery.這人抬起頭來,眼里充滿了好奇。

He stood there trembling, with his face red with cold.他站在那兒瑟瑟發抖,臉都凍紅了。

3.with +名詞(代詞)+副詞

With production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year.產量上升了60%, 公司又是一個好年景。

The stupid Emperor walked in the procession with nothing on.這位愚蠢的皇帝一絲不掛地行進在游行隊伍中。

The naughty boy stood before his teacher with his head down.這個淘氣的男孩低著頭站在老師面前。

He put on his socks with the wrong side out.他把襪子穿反了。

4.with +名詞(代詞)+名詞

She used to sit reading in the evening with her pet dog her only companion.

她從前總愛在晚上坐著看書,她的寵物狗便是她唯一的伙伴。

He died with his daughter yet a schoolgirl.他去世的時候,女兒還是個中學生。

5.with +名詞(代詞)+現在分詞

She stood there chatting with her friend, with her child playing beside her.她站在那兒跟朋友閑聊,孩子在旁邊玩。

With you helping me whenever I’m in trouble, I feel very obliged to you.無論我什么時候遇到困難你總是幫助我,真是太感激你了。

6.with +名詞(代詞)+過去分詞

“I think we can leave with our heads held high,” Eriksson said. “We came out of the toughest group, beat Argentina, beat Denmark in a convincing way.”“我認為我們可以高昂著頭離開,”艾里克松說。“我們來自死亡之組,以一種令人信服的方式擊敗了阿根廷,擊敗了丹麥。”

The goalkeeper left Japan with his flaws laid bare.這位守門員離開了日本,而他的缺點卻暴露無遺。

7.with +名詞(代詞)+不定式

With 10 minutes to go, you’d better hurry. 還有十分鐘,你快一點。

With you to lead us, our group is sure to succeed. 有你領導我們,我們組肯定能成功。

二、句法功能

【作狀語】 with獨立主格結構主要用作狀語,可以表示伴隨、方式、原因、時間等。

例 With Mary to help him, he is sure to succeed. 有瑪麗的幫助,他一定能成功。

【作定語】 主要是用作后置定語。

例 The girl reached a river bank with so many flowers on both banks.這個女孩來到了兩岸開滿鮮花的河邊。

三、句法關系

【主表關系】這種關系主要是由with獨立主格結構中的名詞和其后的形容詞、副詞以及介詞短語構成。

例 Mother looked at me with tears in her eyes. 媽媽眼含淚水看著我。

【主謂關系】這種關系主要是由with獨立主格結構中的名詞和其后的現在分詞構成。

例 With night coming on, we started for home. 夜幕降臨,我們動身回家。

例 The boy lay on the grass, with his eyes looking at the sky.小男孩躺在草地上,兩眼望著天空。

【動賓關系】這種關系主要是由with獨立主格結構中的名詞和其后的過去分詞及動詞不定式構成的,前者表示“被動、完成”,后者表示“未做、待做”。

例 With so much work to do, we had to sit up through the night.有這么多工作要做,我們不得不徹夜不眠。

四、句法省略

【省略特征】 with獨立主格結構中的省略主要是指在“with + n + 介詞短語”結構中的省略,其特點是省去with及介詞短語中的名詞修飾詞,也就是:“n + 介詞 + n”。

例 She ran to the hero, flowers in hand.她手里拿著鮮花跑向這位英雄。

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